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A brain hemorrhage is bleeding in or around the brain. It is a form of stroke. Causes of brain hemorrhage include high blood pressure (hypertension), abnormally weak or dilated (aneurysm) blood vessels that leak, drug abuse, and trauma. Many people who experience a brain hemorrhage have symptoms as though they are having a stroke, and can develop weakness on one side of their body, difficulty speaking, or a sense of numbness. Difficulty performing usual activities, including problems with walking or even falling, are not uncommon symptoms. About 13% of all strokes are hemorrhagic strokes, or caused by bleeding into the brain.
Brain hemorrhage is often labeled according to precisely where it occurs in the brain. In general, bleeding anywhere inside of the skull is called an intracranial hemorrhage. Bleeding within the brain itself is known as an intracerebral hemorrhage. Bleeding can also occur between the covering of the brain and the brain tissue itself, referred to as a subarachnoid hemorrhage. If a blood clot occurs between the skull and the brain, it is known as either a subdural or epidural hematoma depending on whether it is below or above the tough covering (dura) of the brain. Subdural and epidural hematomas are more likely to occur as a result of a traumatic brain injury or after a fall and will not be addressed in detail here.
It is important to recognize that when bleeding occurs within the brain itself, headache may not occur, as our brains don't have the ability to sense the ongoing disturbance. However, the coverings of the brain (meninges) are extremely sensitive and if bleeding occurs there, as when an aneurysm ruptures, a sudden and severe headache is a common stroke symptom.